|Memory: the persistence
of learning over time through the storage and retrieval of information.
Flashbulb Memory: a clear memory of an emotionally significant
moment or event.
Encoding: the processing of information into the memory system
(i.e., getting information into memory).
Storage: the retention of the encoded information over time.
Retrieval: the process of getting information out of memory
External events are first recorded in fleeting sensory
memory. If we pay attention to this information, it will be
encoded into short-term memory. With further encoding and
rehearsal, the information will be recorded in long-term
Sensory Memory: the immediate, initial recording of sensory
information in the memory system (iconic = visual sensory memory;
echoic = auditory sensory memory).
Short-term Memory: activated memory that holds a few items (7 +
or - 2) briefly (about 30 seconds), such
as the 7 digits of a telephone
number while dialing, before the information is stored or forgotten.
Long-term Memory: the relatively permanent and limitless
storehouse of the memory system.
GETTING INFO IN
Automatic Processing: effortless, unconscious encoding of
incidental information, such as space, time, and frequency, and of
well-learned information, such as word meanings.
Effortful Processing: encoding that requires attention and
|Rehearsal: the conscious repetition of information, either
to maintain it in consciousness or to encode it for storage.
Ebbinghaus' Retention Curve: Ebbinghaus found that the more times
he practiced a list of nonsense syllables on day 1, the fewer
repetitions needed to relearn them on day 2. In other words, the
more time we spend learning new information, the better we retain it.
Spacing Effect: the
tendency for distributed study or practice to yield better long-term
retention than is achieved through massed study or practice (i.e.,
cramming doesn't work well).
Serial Position Effect: our tendency to recall best the first and
last items in a list. More specifically:
Recency Effect: When asked to recall
items immediately, we remember items at the end of the list best.
Primacy Effect: When asked to recall
items at a later time, we remember items at the beginning of the list
How We Encode Information
Visual Encoding: the encoding of picture images.
Acoustic Encoding: the encoding of sounds, especially the sound
Semantic Encoding: the encoding of meaning, including the meaning
*NOTE: Processing a word deeply--by its meaning (semantic
encoding)--produces better recognition of it at a later time than does
shallow processing of its appearance (visual encoding) or its sound