Unit 12: Memory

Imagery: mental pictures; a powerful aid to effortful processing, especially when combined with semantic encoding.
Mnemonics: memory aids, especially those techniques that use vivid imagery and organizational devices.
Chunking: organizing items into familiar, manageable units; often occurs automatically.
Sensory Memory
       Iconic Memory:
a momentary sensory memory of visual stimuli; a photographic or picture-image memory lasting no more than a few tenths of a second (this phenomenon was studied by Sperling).
       Echoic Memory: a momentary sensory memory of auditory stimuli; if attention is elsewhere, sounds and words can still be recalled with 3 or 4 seconds.
Short-term Memory
temporary memory storage.  Most people can hold about 7, plus or minus 2, bit of information in STM.  Depending on the type of info, it won't remain in STM much longer than about 10-30 seconds.
Long-term Memory: relatively permanent and limitless memory storehouse.  Both serotonin and stress hormones have been found to be important in the formation of memories.
       Long-term Potentiation (LTP): an increase in a synapse's firing potential after brief, rapid stimulation.  Believed to be a neural basis for learning and memory.
1.  Implicit Memory (non-declarative): recall of information that does not require conscious effort.
        a) Procedural Memory: Memory for skills (cognitive and motor), such as riding a bicycle or saying the alphabet. These skills become almost automatic with time.
        b) Dispositional Memory: all of the behaviors
learned through classical and operant conditioning.
**Implicit memories are processed by the cerebellum.
2.  Explicit Memory (declarative):
memory of facts and experiences that one can consciously know and "declare".
        a) Episodic Memory:  
Memory of personal experiences; it is like your memory "diary".
        b) Semantic Memory:
Memory of facts and general knowledge; it is like your memory "encyclopedia".
**Explicit memories are processed by the hippocampus.
a measure of memory in which the person must retrieve information learned earlier (e.g., fill-in-the-blank test)
a measure of memory in which the person need only identify items previously learned (e.g., multiple-choice test.
a memory measure that assesses the amount of time saved when learning material for a second time.
the activation, often unconsciously, of particular associations in memory.
Context Effects:
memory is better for information that is retrieved in the same (or similar) context in which it was learned (e.g., words memorized underwater are best recalled underwater).
Mood-congruent Memory:
the tendency to recall experiences that are consistent with one's current good or bad mood.
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