treatment of behavioral and emotional disorders using
I. Psychoanalysis (Freud)
Goal: Bring repressed motives, desires, impulses, &
conflicts into consciousness so that the person can deal with
interpretations by the therapist
transference (positive & negative)
II. Humanistic Therapies
Designed to help clients attain self-fulfillment by boosting
self-awareness & self-acceptance.
Person-Centered Therapy (Carl Rogers): A non-directive
form of therapy that calls for the therapist to exhibit
acceptance and empathy for the client in order for the client to
unconditional positive regard
Gestalt Therapy (Fritz Perls): Form of therapy where
the therapist emphasizes the wholeness of the personality
and attempts to reawaken people's emotions in the
Take responsibility for feelings by saying "I choose"
rather than, "I have to" or "I want" rather than "I need".
Always speak in the first person
||III. Behavioral Therapies
Therapies that use operant or classical conditioning
principles to change behavior.
Counterconditioning: aims to condition new
behaviors in response to stimuli that once elicited unwanted
Aversive conditioning: aims to associate an
unpleasant state with an unwanted behavior (often used to treat
Systematic Desensitization: associate a relaxed,
pleasant state with gradually increasing anxiety-provoking
stimuli (excellent for treating phobias)
Operant Conditioning Techniques:
Behavior modification: aims to use positive &
negative reinforcement to change behavior.
Token economies (both are used in classrooms &
IV. Cognitive Therapy
Therapy aimed at changing a person's irrational thoughts
and perceptions in order to achieve a change in behavior
Rational Emotive Therapy (Albert Ellis): Confrontational
therapy where the therapist actively challenges the client's
self-defeating beliefs and cognitions.
Beck's Cognitive Therapy for Depression: Less
confrontational that RET, but same idea. the aim is to change
the maladaptive beliefs of depressed patients by gently helping
them see how irrational their cognitions truly are.