Unit 18: Therapy

Psychotherapy:  The treatment of behavioral and emotional disorders using psychological techniques

I. Psychoanalysis (Freud)
Goal: Bring repressed motives, desires, impulses, & conflicts into consciousness so that the person can deal with them.
free association
     interpretations by the therapist
Associated Terms:
     transference (positive & negative)

II. Humanistic Therapies
Designed to help clients attain self-fulfillment by boosting self-awareness & self-acceptance.
Person-Centered Therapy (Carl Rogers): A non-directive form of therapy that calls for the therapist to exhibit acceptance and empathy for the client in order for the client to become fully-functioning.
active listening
     unconditional positive regard

Gestalt Therapy (Fritz Perls): Form of therapy where the therapist emphasizes the wholeness of the personality and attempts to reawaken people's emotions in the here-and-now.
Take responsibility for feelings by saying "I choose" rather than, "I have to" or "I want" rather than "I need".  Always speak in the first person

  III. Behavioral Therapies
Therapies that use operant or classical conditioning principles to change behavior.
Classical conditioning:
     Counterconditioning: aims to condition new behaviors in response to stimuli that once elicited unwanted behaviors.
     Aversive conditioning: aims to associate an unpleasant state with an unwanted behavior (often used to treat addictions)
     Systematic Desensitization: associate a relaxed, pleasant state with gradually increasing anxiety-provoking stimuli (excellent for treating phobias)

Operant Conditioning Techniques:
Behavior modification: aims to use positive & negative reinforcement to change behavior.
     Behavioral contracting
     Token economies (both are used in classrooms &

IV. Cognitive Therapy
Therapy aimed at changing a person's irrational thoughts and perceptions in order to achieve a change in behavior
Rational Emotive Therapy (Albert Ellis): Confrontational therapy where the therapist actively challenges the client's self-defeating beliefs and cognitions.
Beck's Cognitive Therapy for Depression: Less confrontational that RET, but same idea.  the aim is to change the maladaptive beliefs of depressed patients by gently helping them see how irrational their cognitions truly are.



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