I. Psychoanalytic Perspective
Psychoanalysis (FREUD) definition: treating
and understanding disorders by exploring unconscious
conflicts and the unconscious expression of/or
repression of unconscious impulses. thoughts, feeling
Uses primary process thinking (dreaming, fantasizing,
etc.—as a way to gratify the id immediately) The id strives
to satisfy basic sexual and aggressive drives. The id
operates on the “pleasure principle”.
Uses secondary process thinking (a method to “get
what you need” in the real world.) The ego tries to “make
peace” between the id, superego, and reality. The ego
operates on the “ reality principle”.
The conscience. The super-ego strives for perfection and
judges actions. Weak superego: person is selfish and
Extremely strong superego: person is guilt- ridden.
Psychosexual Stages of Development
mos.): Pleasure Zone: mouth —
biting. chewing, sucking.
(18-36 mos.): Pleasure Zone: anus
— bowel & bladder
elimination; coping with demands for control (toilet
Phallic (3-6 yrs.): Pleasure Zone: genitals
— coping with
incestuous sexual feelings (Oedipal complex & Electra
Latency (6-puberty): dormant sexual
Psychosexual Stages (cont.)
Genital (puberty on): Mature sexual
Fixation can occur at any of the first three stages
if during that stage of development the child is either
over-gratified or under- gratified. As a result. some sexual
energy (libido ) becomes fixated at that
The Ego’s method of reducing anxiety
Projection Reaction Formation
archetypes: anima, animus, persona,
shadow, hero, savior etc.
Introverts vs. Extroverts
Jung focused less on the sexual and more on the rational
& spiritual qualities of people than did Freud.
Adler focused on directing energy overcoming feelings of
inferiority striving toward perfection.
She strongly disagreed with Freud’s view of women as weak &
over-emotional. She focused on how cultural forces
can impact personality development.