Unit 16: Personality Development
I. Psychoanalytic Perspective
Psychoanalysis (FREUD) definition: treating and understanding disorders by exploring unconscious conflicts and the unconscious expression of/or repression of unconscious impulses. thoughts, feeling and desires.
Personality Structure
Uses primary process thinking (dreaming, fantasizing, etc.—as a way to gratify the id immediately) The id strives to satisfy basic sexual and aggressive drives. The id operates on the “pleasure principle”.
Uses secondary process thinking (a method to “get what you need” in the real world.) The ego tries to “make peace” between the id, superego, and reality. The ego operates on the “ reality principle”.
The conscience. The super-ego strives for perfection and judges actions. Weak superego: person is selfish and remorseless.
Extremely strong superego: person is guilt- ridden.
Psychosexual Stages of Development
(0-18 mos.): Pleasure Zone: mouth biting. chewing, sucking.
Anal (18-36 mos.): Pleasure Zone: anus bowel & bladder elimination; coping with demands for control (toilet training).
(3-6 yrs.): Pleasure Zone: genitals
coping with incestuous sexual feelings (Oedipal complex & Electra complex).
(6-puberty): dormant sexual feelings.

Psychosexual Stages (cont.)
Genital (puberty on): Mature sexual interests.
Fixation can occur at any of the first three stages if during that stage of development the child is either over-gratified or under- gratified. As a result. some sexual energy (libido ) becomes fixated at that stage.
Defense Mechanisms
The Ego’s method of reducing anxiety by
distorting reality:
Repression               Regression
Projection                Reaction Formation
Displacement           Rationalization
Sublimation              Intellectualization
Identification            Denial

The Neo-Freudians
Carl Jung
     personal unconscious
     collective unconscious
     archetypes: anima, animus, persona,
         shadow, hero, savior etc.
     Introverts vs. Extroverts
Jung focused less on the sexual and more on the rational & spiritual qualities of people than did Freud.
Alfred Adler:
     Inferiority complex
     Fictional finalism
Adler focused on directing energy overcoming feelings of inferiority striving toward perfection.
Karen Horney:
She strongly disagreed with Freud’s view of women as weak & over-emotional. She focused on how cultural forces can impact personality development.


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