Unit 14: Cognition & Language

(Thinking) the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating.
Concept: a mental grouping of similar objects, events, ideas, or people.
Prototype: a mental image or BEST example of a category (e.g., a prototypical "bird" may be a robin).
Artificial Intelligence (AI): the science of designing and programming computer systems to do intelligent things and to simulate human thought processes, such as intuitive reasoning, learning, and understanding language.
                           Solving Problems
a methodical, logical rule or procedure that guarantees solving a particular problem.
Heuristic: a simple thinking strategy that often allows us to make judgments and solve problems efficiently; usually speedier but also more error-prone than algorithms.
Insight: a sudden and often novel realization of the solution to a problem; it contrasts with strategy-based solutions.
                  Obstacles to Problem Solving
Confirmation Bias:
a tendency to search for information that confirms one's preconceptions.
Fixation: the inability to see a problem from a new perspective.
Mental Set: a tendency to approach a problem in a particular way, especially a way that has been successful in the past but may or may not be helpful in solving a new problem.
Functional Fixedness: the tendency to think of objects only in terms of their usual functions.
               Making Decisions and Judgments
Representativeness Heuristic:
judging the likelihood of things in terms of how well they seem to represent, or match, particular prototypes; may lead one to ignore relevant information.
Availability Heuristic: estimating the likelihood of events based on their availability in memory; if instances come readily to mind (perhaps because of their vividness), we presume such events are common.
Overconfidence: the tendency to be more confident in our judgments that correct---to overestimate the accuracy of one's beliefs and judgments.
Framing: the way in which an issue is posed (or worded); this can significantly affect decisions and judgments.
Belief Bias: the tendency for one's preexisting beliefs to distort logical reasoning, sometimes by making invalid conclusions seem valid, or valid conclusions seem invalid.
Belief Perseverance: clinging to one's initial conceptions after the basis on which they were formed has been discredited.
our spoken, written, or signed words and the ways we combine them to communicate meaning.
Phoneme: in spoken language, the smallest distinctive sound unit.
Morpheme: in language, the smallest unit that carries meaning; may be a word or part of a word (like a prefix).
Grammar: a system of rules that enables us to communicate with language and understand each other.
Semantics: the set of rules by which we derive meaning from morphemes, words, and sentences; also the study of meaning.
Syntax: the rules for combining words into grammatically sensible sentences.
                      Language Development
Babbling Stage:
beginning at 3-4 months, the stage of speech development in which the infant spontaneously utters various sounds at first unrelated to the household language.
One-word Stage: the stage in speech development, from about age 1 to age 2, during which a child speaks mostly in single words.
Two-word Stage: beginning at about age 2, the stage in speech development during which a child speaks mostly two-word statements.
        Telegraphic Speech: speech stage in which a child speaks like a telegram--"go car"--using mostly nouns and verbs and omitting "auxiliary words (like "the" and "a").    NEXT PAGE                       

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