AP Psychology Review

Code: ___________________________

  1. The light-sensitive, inner surface of the eye, containing rods and cones plus layers of neurons that begin the processing of visual information. __________________

  2. The brain’s ability to process many things at once. ____________________ ______________________

  3. The theory that the spinal cord contains a neurological "gate" that blocks pain signals or allows them to pass on to the brain. ________________ ______________ _________________

  4. The theory that opposing retinal processes (red-green, blue-yellow, and white-black) enable color vision. ____________________ - ___________________ __________________

  5. The process by which our sensory receptors and the nervous system receive and represent stimulus energies from our environment. ______________________

  6. A coiled, bony, fluid-filled tube in the inner ear through which sound waves trigger nerve impulses. ___________________________________

  7. This refers to a stimulus that is below one’s absolute threshold for conscious awareness. _______________________ stimulation

  8. The minimum difference a person can detect between two stimuli. We experience it as a just noticeable difference. ____________________ _________________

  9. A condition in which nearby objects are seen more clearly than distant objects because the lens focuses the image of distant objects in front of the retina. ______________________________

  10. The nerve that carries neural impulses from the eye to the brain. _________________ __________________

  11. The distance from the peak of one light or sound wave to the peak of the next. It determines color with respect to light waves and pitch with respect to sound waves. __________________________

  12. Retinal receptors that detect black, white, and gray. They are necessary for peripheral and twilight vision. _____________________

  13. The central focal point in the retina, around which the eye’s cones cluster. _______________________

  14. The sense of hearing. _____________________

  15. The part of the ear containing the cochlea, semicircular canals, and vestibular sacs. _____________________ _________________

  16. The principle that one sense may influence another, as when the smell of food influences its taste. _____________________ ______________________

  17. The process by which the eye’s lens changes shape to focus the image of an object on the retina. ___________________________

  18. Nerve cells in the brain that respond to specific features of the stimulus, such as shape, angle, or movement. ___________________ ___________________

  19. The theory that links the pitch we hear with the place where the cochlea’s membrane is stimulated. ___________________ ________________

  20. The minimum stimulation needed to detect a stimulus 50% of the time. ________________________ ________________________

  21. Hearing loss caused by damage to the mechanical system that conducts sound waves to the cochlea (i.e., damage to the tiny bones in the ear or the eardrum). _________________________ ________________________

  22. The system for sensing the position and movement of individual body parts. ____________________________

  23. Diminished sensitivity as a consequence of constant stimulation. _________________________ ________________________

  24. In hearing, the theory that the rate of nerve impulses traveling up the auditory nerve matches the frequency of a tone, thus enabling us to sense its pitch. ________________________ __________________

  25. The theory that the retina contains three different color receptors – one most sensitive to red, one to blue, and one to green – which when stimulated in combination can produce the perception of any color. ___________________________ _____________________ ____________

  26. Receptor cells that are concentrated in the fovea of the retina and that function in daylight or in well-lit conditions. They detect fine detail and give rise to the perception of color. ________________________

  27. The conversion of one form of energy into another. In sensation, the transforming of stimulus energies into neural impulses. _____________________________

  28. The point at which the optic nerve leaves the back of the eye. No receptor cells are located there. _______________________

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