AP Psychology Homework
Learning

Many of you may feel that this is the most difficult of the homework reviews. Feel free to work with a friend or in a group. But PLEASE, donít just copy someone elseís work.  Thanks, Diane

Code: ____________________________

  1. The initial stage of learning, during which a response is established and gradually strengthened. _____________________________

  2. Anything in the environment that elicits a response. ______________________

  3. An operant conditioning procedure in which reinforcers guide behavior toward closer and closer approximations of a desired goal. _____________________________

  4. In operant conditioning, this occurs when a response is no longer followed by a consequence. It occurs in classical conditioning when the unconditioned stimulus no longer follows the conditioned stimulus. _____________________________

  5. Reinforcement of the desired response every time it occurs. _____________________ ______________________

  6. In operant conditioning, a schedule of reinforcement that reinforces a response only after a specified number of responses. _______________________ - __________________ ______________________

  7. The type of reinforcer that strengthens a response by reducing or removing an aversive (unpleasant) stimulus. ______________________ ________________________

  8. Learning that occurs, but is not apparent, until there is an incentive to demonstrate the learning. _______________________ ______________________

  9. In classical conditioning, a stimulus that "unconditionally"ónaturally and automatically Ė triggers a response. ____________________________ ______________________

  10. An innately (naturally) reinforcing stimulus, such as one that satisfies a biological need. __________________________ ________________________

  11. A chamber containing a bar or key that an animal can manipulate to obtain a food or water reinforcer. ______________________ _________________

  12. The reappearance, after a rest period, of an extinguished response. _________________ ______________________

  13. A form of conditioning in which an organism comes to "associate" a neutral stimulus with an unconditioned (unlearned) stimulus. Eventually, the neutral stimulus will elicit the same response as the unconditioned stimulus. ______________________________ _______________________________

  14. Learning by observing and imitating the behavior of others. ______________________ _________________________

  15. In operant conditioning, a schedule of reinforcement that reinforces a response at unpredictable time intervals (an example would be glancing at the sky in hopes of seeing a falling star. You would only be reinforced occasionally, over a period of time REGARDLESS of how often you looked at the sky). To put it another way, reinforcement will occur only after a random amount of time has passed. _______________________ - _______________________ _____________________

  16. The psychological perspective that psychology (1) should be an objective science that (2) studies observable behavior without reference to mental processes. Most research psychologist agree with (1) but not (2). ____________________________

  17. In classical conditioning, an original neutral stimulus that, after association with an unconditioned stimulus, comes to trigger a conditioned response. ______________________________ _________________________

  18. An aversive event that decreases the behavior it follows. ________________________

  19. The tendency, once a response has been conditioned (learned), for stimuli similar to the conditioned stimulus to evoke similar responses. ________________________________

  20. A type of learning in which behavior is strengthened if followed by reinforcement or diminished if followed by punishment. _____________________ _________________

  21. A relatively permanent change in an organismís behavior due to experience. ________________________

  22. Classical conditioning is also called this, due to the researcher who first described and studied it. ____________________________ _________________________

  23. The ability to distinguish between two similar stimuli. This is seen (in different forms) in both classical and operant conditioning. _____________________________

  24. The "effect" of promising a reward for doing what one already likes to do. This may eventually decrease intrinsic motivation. ____________________________________ ______________________

  25. Reinforcing a response only part of the time. This results in slower acquisition of responses, but much greater resistance to extinction than does continuous reinforcement. ________________________ ____________________________

  26. A conditioned (learned) reinforcer. It gains its reinforcing power through its association with a primary reinforcer. ______________________ _____________________

  27. In classical conditioning, the "learned" response to a previously neutral conditioned stimulus. _____________________________ __________________________
 


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