Topics and Learning Objectives
VIII. Motivation and Emotion
In this part of the course, students explore biological and social factors that motivate behavior and biological and cultural factors that influence emotion.
AP students in psychology should be able to do the following:
Identify and apply basic motivational concepts to understand the behavior of humans and other animals (e.g., instincts, incentives, intrinsic versus extrinsic motivation).
- Discuss the biological underpinnings of motivation, including needs, drives and homeostasis.
- Compare and contrast motivational theories (e.g., drive reduction theory, arousal theory, general adaptation theory), including the strengths and weaknesses of each.
- Describe classic research findings in specific motivation systems (e.g., eating, sex, social).
- Discuss theories of stress and the effects of stress on psychological and physical well-being.
- Compare and contrast major theories of emotion (e.g., James-Lange, Cannon-Bard, Singer-Schachter two-factor theory).
- Describe how cultural influences shape emotional expression, including variations in body language.
- Identify key contributors in the psychology of motivation and emotion (e.g., William James, Alfred Kinsey, Abraham Maslow, Stanley Schachter, Hans Seyle).